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More recently Merial, a division of Merck and Aventis Companies, has developed RECOMBITEK® Equine West Nile Virus Vaccine, a vaccine using recombinant DNA. The virus was recognized as an important pathogen of horses as it spread from its eastern focus, affecting large numbers of animals as it moved westward. by Zoetis Animal Health. Q. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Empty and clean watering troughs at least every four days. HHS In New Jersey 44% of the infected horses were not vaccinated, 21% had an unknown vaccination record and 27% were vaccinated improperly (including missing the three to six week window). West Nile virus reached the west coast of the United States in 2002 and was responsible for more than 14,000 diagnosed equine cases that year. All rights reserved. Q. Horses are humanely euthanized only when the viral infection is so severe they will not be able to recover. A. Millions of doses of the Fort Dodge vaccine have been used since the USDA’s Center for Veterinary Biologics approved its use in 2001. West Nile virus will be a threat to horses as long as a virus reservoir remains in the bird population, as is the case with Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. If you discover standing water on your property and are unsure how to eliminate it. Vaccinate all young horses (less than one year of age) in March/April with a three-dose primary series. USA.gov. What is the seasonal progression of West Nile virus? Should I vaccinate my horse that was previously infected or recovered? Q. 2004 Aug;4(8):1295-305. doi: 10.1517/14712598.4.8.1295. Dogs, cats, and livestock species including chickens are readily infected with WNV, but only occasionally develop clinical disease and are considered dead-end hosts for the virus. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. West Nile virus; domestic animal; equine; vaccine. EEE is an arbovirus (short for arthropod-borne, meaning spread by insects). Birds circulate high levels of the pathogen in their blood and serve as the sole source of the virus for mosquitoes. The recently licensed WNV vaccine by Merial (Recombitek Equine West Nile virus®) has been approved by the USDA for use in horses only. A. Similar to the Fort Dodge vaccine, the safety and efficacy of the Merial vaccine in birds is neither known nor guaranteed by Merial or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Jul 21, 2005 (CIDRAP News) Federal officials say a new West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine for horses, licensed this week, represents a breakthrough that may lead to important benefits for human vaccine development. This material may be copied for educational purposes only by not-for-profit accredited educational institutions. A. Rutgers is an equal access/equal opportunity institution. These approaches include vaccines containing cocktails of individual WNV proteins and chimeric vaccines, which combine genes from more than one virus into a single vaccine. West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito borne virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus. Bird vaccine for West Nile Virus Date: July 9, 2013 Source: University of British Columbia Summary: Researchers have developed a vaccine to halt the spread of West Nile … Should maintain their spring booster when encephalitis shot is given (preferably before the start of mosquito season). Core vaccines include Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis (EEE/WEE), west Nile virus (WNV), tetanus and rabies and should be administered to all horses at least annually following an initial two-to-three-dose series. Horses that have not been protected through proper vaccination may contract the infection at this time of year. Immunization The administration of a vaccine to produce protective immunity against the infectious disease agent(s) present in the vaccine. eCollection 2018. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Call your veterinarian immediately. 2016 Dec;63(6):e153-e159. A. If the foal is from a mare that has not been vaccinated for WNV, the foal should be vaccinated at six to eight weeks of age and receive a series of three injections spaced three to six weeks apart (recommended by the NJ Department of Agriculture). This service is free of charge and available to county residents. As a result, some horse owners choose not to use the effective preventive measure against West Nile virus available to them. Immunity may not develop for four to six weeks after the second injection. What is the proper method of vaccinating horses for West Nile virus? 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