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An Iron Age culture of the Tibetan Plateau has tentatively been associated with the Zhang Zhung culture described in early Tibetan writings. [66], In Philippines and Vietnam, the Sa Huynh culture showed evidence of an extensive trade network. It was long held that the success of the Hittite Empire during the Late Bronze Age had been based on the advantages entailed by the "monopoly" on ironworking at the time. The Iron Age is the third principal period of the three-age system created by Christian Thomsen (1788–1865) for classifying ancient societies and prehistoric stages of … Knowledge of iron, introduced in the 7th century, was a merely incidental fact: it does not signify a...…, Highly interesting artistic flowerings occurred in Spain at the end of the protohistoric era. The African Iron Age, also known as the Early Iron Age Industrial Complex, is traditionally considered that period in Africa between the second century CE up to about 1000 CE when iron smelting was practiced. Such iron, being in its native metallic state, required no smelting of ores.[5][6]. The Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I a… Minze Stuiver and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Radiocarbon Chronology of the Iron Age in Sub-Saharan Africa', Ferrous metallurgy § Iron smelting and the Iron Age, dagger with an iron blade found in Tutankhamun's tomb, history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent, "5,000 years old Egyptian iron beads made from hammered meteoritic iron", Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction, "The Significance of Early Bronze Age Iron Objects from Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey", "The origins of Iron Working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas". £0.00 . Han-Dynasty-style bronze mirrors were also found in Sa Huynh sites. n. The period in cultural development succeeding the Bronze Age in Asia, Europe, and Africa, characterized by the introduction of iron metallurgy. Tin's low melting point of 231.9 °C (449.4 °F) and copper's relatively moderate melting point of 1,085 °C (1,985 °F) placed them within the capabilities of the Neolithic pottery kilns, which date back to 6000 BC and were able to produce temperatures greater than 900 °C (1,650 °F). One ironworking centre in East India has been dated to the first millennium BC. Early Iron Age synonyms, Early Iron Age pronunciation, Early Iron Age translation, English dictionary definition of Early Iron Age. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period; The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from that era. The architectural period marked by the prevalent use of iron or steel. Iron Age, final technological and cultural stage in the Stone–Bronze–Iron Age sequence in which iron for the most part replaced bronze in implements and weapons. Nubia was a major manufacturer and exporter of iron after the expulsion of the Nubian dynasty from Egypt by the Assyrians in the 7th century BC. South Asian Studies 5:1-16: 3, Deraniyagala, Siran, The Prehistory of Sri Lanka; an ecological perspective. The site was researched by Francisco Martins Sarmento starting from 1874. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Duncan E. Miller and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Early Metal Working in Sub Saharan Africa', A.M.Snodgrass (1966), "Arms and Armour of the Greeks". These new inhabitants also manufactured pottery containers. Metalworking is a very complex empirical science. Iron manufacturing increase in all facets of life such as weapon construction and agriculture items. Iron metallurgy reached the Yangtse Valley toward the end of the 6th century BC. [11][68] [21] These are no longer cast but hammered into shape, and decoration is elaborate and curvilinear rather than simple rectilinear; the forms and character of the ornamentation of the northern European weapons resemble in some respects Roman arms, while in other respects they are peculiar and evidently representative of northern art. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering. Very early copper and bronze working sites in Niger may date to as early as 1500 BC. Yoon, Dong-suk. The Iron Age began with political upheaval in the Near East. The Pazyryk culture is an Iron Age archaeological culture (c. 6th to 3rd centuries BC) identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost in the Altay Mountains. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country, Transjordan and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe. This item has been professionally cleaned to show original details, and includes a lifetime authenticity certificate. ), Colombo: Archaeological Survey Department of Sri Lanka, 1992: 709-29, Karunaratne and Adikari 1994, Excavations at Aligala prehistoric site. There is also evidence of iron metallurgy in Termit, Niger from around this period. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 1989. [1] For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. The Encyclopædia Britannica. For the mythological Iron Age, see. [22] The widespread use of iron weapons which replaced bronze weapons rapidly disseminated throughout the Near East (North Africa, southwest Asia) by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. ", Finkelstein, Israel, and Eli Piasetzky. and a copper/bronze mirror handle with a decorative iron button. [21] A sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah as well as a battle axe with an iron blade and gold-decorated bronze shaft were both found in the excavation of Ugarit. [7] In addition to specially designed furnaces, ancient iron production needed to develop complex procedures for the removal of impurities, the regulation of the admixture of carbon, and for hot-working to achieve a useful balance of hardness and strength in steel. [76], This article is about the historical/archaeological period known as the Iron Age. [64] It is also speculated that Early Iron Age sites may exist in Kandarodai, Matota, Pilapitiya and Tissamaharama. At present over 100 large-scale excavations of Iron Age sites have taken place, dating from the 8th century BC to the 1st century AD, and overlapping into the Bronze Age in the 8th century BC. The characteristic of an Iron Age culture is the mass production of tools and weapons made from steel, typically alloys with a carbon content between approximately 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. The Iron Age came after the Bronze Age.There was a period of a few centuries when bronze and iron were both used while iron smelting techniques gradually spread. Major sites of lower Pala… Earliest lower Palaeolithic site is Bori in Maharashtra. Sa Huynh beads were made from glass, carnelian, agate, olivine, zircon, gold and garnet; most of these materials were not local to the region and were most likely imported. ), Colombo: Archaeological Survey Department of Sri Lanka, 1992: 730–732, 735. [4] Meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. 2002. Iron Age, final technological and cultural stage in the Stone–Bronze–Iron Age sequence. Artifacts: In the Indian sub-continent, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture in the 18th century BC, and to end with the reign of Ashoka (3rd century BC). Iron production took place in Anatolia at least as early as 1200 BC, with some evidence pointing to even earlier dates.. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. The use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South, East, and Southeast Asia is more recent and less common than for western Eurasia. by at least c.1500 BC[52] Archaeological excavations in Hyderabad show an Iron Age burial site. Iron Age period in Ireland dates from 500BC-400AD and saw the arrival of the Celts. It was attributed to Seth, the spirit of evil who according to Egyptian tradition governed the central deserts of Africa. 174–183 in. The Introduction and Development of Iron Production in Korea. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC (the Bronze Age collapse) to c. 550 BC (or 539 BC), roughly the beginning of historiography with Herodotus; the end of the proto-historical period. 66 ], in Philippines and Vietnam, the spirit of evil who to... Based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements attributed to Seth, the protohistoric early Iron Age translation English! During this period of peaceful settlements 3.8 hectares and served for Celtiberians as a stronghold against Roman invasions,,! Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) Ancient Celtic ( Age... To 1800 BC. [ 5 ] [ 6 ], 3rd century B.C of,! 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